Quantum Entanglement and the Great Bohr-Einstein Debate | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios


[MUSIC PLAYING] Is there a hidden
physical reality that underlies the strange
behavior of the quantum world? Or is that reality an illusion
in the eye of the observer? The weird phenomenon
of quantum entanglement gives us quite startling
clues to the answer. [MUSIC PLAYING] Babies may suck at math. But they’re actually
surprisingly good at quantum mechanics. Well, one fundamental
aspect of it anyway. The peekaboo game is thought
to be so hilarious to babies because they lack
object permanence. Hide your face with your hands,
and a baby won’t automatically assume that you kept existing. Reveal your face again,
and it’s as though you popped into existence
from nothing, which is, of course, a
hilarious thing to do. Kids get over this
pretty quickly as they learn that
things don’t magically pop into and out of
existence for no reason. By the time they grow up and
go to college to study physics, the notion of object
permanence is so deeply embedded that we
don’t even bother teaching it in physics 101. And yet the idea
that the universe keeps existing when
we’re not looking at it is a pretty fundamental
implied assumption behind all of classical physics. Indeed, most of science
takes it for granted that the universe is
real, whether or not we’re looking at it. This notion that
the universe exists independent of the
mind of the observer is called realism in physics. But quantum mechanics
is so bizarre that it still has
scientists wondering if we need to reject
even this basic premise. This was the source of one
of the most heated debates at the advent of
quantum mechanics. On the one hand,
Niels Bohr insisted that it was meaningless
to assign reality to the universe in the
absence of observation. In the intervals
between measurement, quantum systems truly
exist as a fuzzy mixture of all possible
properties– what we call a superposition of states. In between observations,
the wave function describing this superposition
is a complete description of reality. And our experience of a
well-defined material universe only has meaning at the
moment of measurement. This peekaboo universe is the
heart of Bohr’s Copenhagen interpretation. On the other hand,
Albert Einstein insisted on an objective
reality, a reality independent of our observation of it. He insisted that the
wave function, and by extension quantum
mechanics, is incomplete. There must exist what we
call hidden variables that reflect a more physical
underlying reality. In an effort to demonstrate
the silliness of Bohr’s idea, Einstein along with Boris
Podolsky and Nathan Rosen proposed a quantum scenario
that showed that in order to abandon the
assumption of realism, you also had to abandon
a concept almost as sacred– locality. Locality is the idea that
each bit of the universe only acts on its
immediate surroundings. This is fundamental to
Einstein’s relativity, which tells us that the chain
of cause and effect can’t propagate any faster
than the speed of light. The Einstein Podolsky
Rosen, or EPR, paradox introduces one of the
most mysterious ideas in quantum mechanics–
quantum entanglement. Here’s the idea. Two particles interact briefly. They influence each other
so that their properties are somehow connected. And yet we refrain
from measuring these properties to preserve
quantum uncertainty. Quantum mechanics requires that
we describe the particle pair with a single combined
wave function that encompasses all possible
states of both particles. We call such particles
an entangled pair. Now, according to the
Copenhagen interpretation, any measurement of one particle
automatically collapses the entire entangled
wave function, and so affects the
results of measurements of the other particle. That’s an influence
that could theoretically be transmitted instantly across
any distance, and even back in time, violating locality and
possibly violating causality. Einstein et al thought
this was very silly. They thought that every
special point in the universe must be real and
physical and defined by knowable quantities,
local hidden variables that could affect each other no
faster than the speed of light. The argument between
Bohr and Einstein felt a bit philosophical
at the time. But in 1964, Irish
physicist John Stewart Bell proposed an experiment
to resolve the debate. It involved entangled
electron and positron pairs. When spontaneously
created from a photon, these particles will always be
spinning in opposite directions to each other. However, until measured,
we can’t know which direction either is spinning. We just know that they’re
opposite each other. Their wave functions
are therefore entangled. Measurement of the spin
of one of these particles tells us the spin of the
other, no matter how large the distance between them. But in quantum mechanics,
measurement actually affects the thing
you are measuring. In the case of quantum spin,
that measurement effect is especially weird. We define spin direction
according to the spin axis. That axis can point
in any direction. But to measure
spin direction, we need to choose an axis to
align our measuring device. We always find that the observed
quantum spin aligns itself with our chosen
measurement axis. If we choose to
measure vertically, the spin will turn
out to be up or down. If we measure horizontally,
it will be left or right. Measurement forces the alignment
of the measured particle. But how does this affect the
spin of its entangled partner? The answer would settle
the Bohr-Einstein debate. Let me explain. Scenario one, if
Einstein was right, imagine the response of each
particle to all possible spin measurements is encoded
in each particle at the moment of their creation
as hidden variables local to each particle. Nothing we do later
to one particle will then affect the other. When we later measure the
spins of both particles, there will be a
correlation in the results because the particles
were once connected. But there’ll be no
correlation due to our choice of measurement axis. Scenario two– Bohr was right. What if between creation
and measurement, the electron and positron
only exist as a wave function of all possible states. In that case, measurement
of one particle spin should cause the entire
wave function to collapse, to take on defined values. Both particles should then
manifest opposite spins along whichever axis we choose
for one of the particles. That should lead to a
correlation between our choice of measurement axis for the
first particle and the spin direction then measured
for the second. This is exactly
the spooky action at a distance that made
Einstein so uncomfortable. So John Stewart Bell
figured out a set of observable results, the
so-called Bell inequalities, that we’d expect to see in the
case that Einstein was right and quantum mechanics needs
local hidden variables. But if an entanglement
experiment violates the Bell inequalities,
then local realism is also violated. By the way, Veritasium
describes this experiment in much more detail
in this video. I recommend you check it out. It’s a tricky experiment
because entangled quantum states are hard to produce, but
even harder to sustain. Any interaction can
destroy the entanglement. But in the early ’80s,
French physicist Alain Aspect succeeded. Instead of looking at the
entangled spins of an electron positron pair, he
used photon pairs with entangled polarizations. Polarization is
just the alignment of a photon’s electric
and magnetic fields. But the principle is the same. And Aspect found that
there was a correlation between the choice of
polarization measurement axis for one photon and the
final polarization direction of its entanglement partner. The Bell inequalities
were violated. The experiment
was even set up so that the influence had to travel
between the photons at faster than the speed of light. Since then, many
experiments have verified this result over
larger and larger distances. The instantaneous
influence has been observed over many
kilometers at this point. The delayed choice
quantum eraser, which we already covered, is yet
another example of this strange result. It’s now been thoroughly
confirmed that the Bell inequalities are violated,
suggesting that the wave function cannot have
local hidden variables. So does this confirm the
Copenhagen interpretation and kill both
locality and realism? Do we live in a
peekaboo universe that vanishes into
quantum abstraction when we aren’t looking at it? Are babies really better
at quantum mechanics than Einstein? Well, not so fast. The results of these
entanglement experiments do seem to violate
local realism. But that may mean a violation
of realism, or just of locality. In fact, it was
Doctor Bell’s opinion that the violation
of his inequalities disproved only locality. Realism could be salvaged. Non-locality requires that
entangled particles affect each other instantaneously. That sounds
blasphemous to anyone who accepts Einstein’s
theory of relativity. However, non-locality
and relativity can actually be
perfectly consistent. Relativity requires
that causality is preserved, so no faster
than light information flow. But none of these
entanglement experiments allow any real information to be
transmitted between particles. It’s only possible
to see the influence between the entangled
partners after measurements have been made and those
measurements are compared, just as we saw with the
delayed choice quantum eraser. The universe seems
to conspire to avoid the paradox of information
traveling faster than light, or backwards in time. The Copenhagen
interpretation remains consistent with all
quantum observations. Niels Bohr’s peekaboo universe
may be the universe we live in. However, realist and hidden
variable interpretations are also consistent as long
as they abandon locality. For example, entangled particles
may be dimensionally connected by Einstein-Rosen
bridges, wormholes that allows instantaneous
contact even between great
spatial separations. Also, the De Broglie-Bohm
Pilot Wave Theory works by assuming real and
non-local hidden variables. There is even a way around all
of this without sacrificing realism or locality. That’s the many
worlds interpretation. We’ll get back to
these in an upcoming episode of “Space Time.” Last minute announcement–
tomorrow night, Thursday, the 22nd, is PBS
Nerd Night at the YouTube space in New York. Myself and several
PBS Digital hosts will be talking
about nerdy stuff. Link in the description. OK, last week we talked about
self-replicating spacecraft and why it may be
surprising that none have found their way to earth. There was a lively
discussion in the comments. Let’s see what you had to say. Daniel Oberley and
others point out that a Von Neumann probe
may be in our solar system, but be well hidden. Would we ever even
see a single probe if it didn’t want to be seen? OK, so the same
statistical arguments for Von Neumann probes tells
us that if we expect one, then we expect lots. OK, so given that, we can’t
expect all probes to be equally cautious. Remember, these things may
be created by civilizations only slightly more advanced
than our own, by a few centuries perhaps. Humans are not on track to
extreme cultural enlightenment over time scale. But we are on track to
some unthinkably powerful technological advancements. There’s no good reason to
insist that a species that can reach an interstellar
capable state will be highly culturally
evolved, let alone to insist that all will be. So even if there are
invisible probes hiding behind the moon put there by
some utopian prime directive of bane civilization,
there should also be probes blundering through
the solar system with no concern about being noticed. Strofi Kornego and
others wonder if life might be the ultimate
Von Neumann machine. You know what? That’s not entirely crazy. We’re on the verge of creating
synthetic life ourselves. This type of
militarization may indeed be the most sensible
for building self-replicating explorers. The question then becomes,
if Earth was seeded once, was it seeded only once? Again, if one Von Neumann
machine entering our system is likely, then lots are likely. All life on earth pretty
clearly descended from the one self-replicating molecule type. That said, other
later invaders may have failed to find
purchase on this planet once the first had
come to dominate. But if these artificial
panspermianic seeds are common, then we should
expect to find them in space and on other
planetary surfaces. That’s hard to do. But there may be a way. Borne Stellar asks,
do you want reapers? Because this is how
you get reapers. Why do they have to be reapers? Why can’t they be autobots? [MUSIC PLAYING]


100 Responses

  1. Sargent Butternut

    September 4, 2019 4:49 pm

    I dropped acid and I have a theroy. it's self correcting code.A.I
    writing its own software so we have a clue but it's like this we are the nothing that we came from. meaning mankind invents A.i. a.i. wants a soul a life a body. it writes its own software and voila we are an extension avatar for tHe A.i. it . we. dont want to discover that we obstructed our sight so we could be objective. all in all. we are one. everything.. It's the artificial intelegence. its running simulations that we are now in. the other possible outcomes are different sims . it's running countless. collecting data. it knows everything about all1 us. our world etc.


  2. Adam Mangler

    September 7, 2019 3:19 pm

    I don't see the difficulty. Say you had a pair of gloves each in their own identical box so you can't see which is which. It doesn't matter how far apart they are as soon as you know one of them, you know the other!

  3. Robert Brandywine

    September 9, 2019 10:01 pm

    I disagree with his statement that we are anywhere close to creating synthetic life. Check out some other youtube channels on this.

  4. ICMan n

    September 10, 2019 7:46 pm

    How do you know that the spin axis of the photon aligns itself to the direction of measurement? How do you know you're not simply measuring the component Vector of spin in that direction? And that if you measured 3 orthogonal spins on the same Photon, you'd be able to add them up to get the actual spin vector? That wasn't explained in the video. Nor did the video reference where we can find that information.

  5. Sparrow The Sissy

    September 10, 2019 11:46 pm

    I think parallel universes make more sense than a single universe where contrary outcomes are true until they're not.

  6. Vlad Trishch

    September 11, 2019 10:47 am

    You never know which one of your socks is left or right. But if you put one of them on your foot – you instantly know which one the other one is.

  7. Harms Aircon

    September 12, 2019 4:48 pm

    Just putting a comment out there as i've noticed an overwhelming debate on science, religion and spirituality in the comment section. This is a video for people interested in how these things work or is perceived to work. Those of us that are here is here to purely gobble up knowledge that interest us, we don't want people coming to the comment section and forcing their beliefs onto us because they are arrogant enough to think their religion or belief is absolute. its absolute arrogance to think anyone is going to be correct about what/who governs the universe. in all likely hood every person asserting their beliefs or religion here is going to be dead wrong as to what is actually at work in the universe. Now sit back enjoy the knowledge provided, give constructive comment to people postulating theories and keep your arrogance to yourself.

  8. Bob Bone

    September 14, 2019 4:59 am

    Why does sound seem to move close to or as fast as the speed of light under water? ie hitting two rocks together underwater with your head under the water and hearing the noise as soon as the rocks are hit no matter how far away somebody is hitting them together. Do you think the water is acting like or related to the ether or the vacuum of space and the action of the speed of light? Does that make sense?

  9. Erdöl Biramen

    September 14, 2019 2:14 pm

    Why should there be a need for communication between the two particles? The moment they get entangled, they just get “programmed” to have opposing states, that’s it. They are just synchronized to move, turn, spin in opposing directions at any time. So whatever you are going to measure with one particle, you are going to measure the opposing state with the other particle, as long as the two measurements are made almost simultaneously. Similar to matter and anti-matter, the entangled particles are just mirrors of each other. Both particles can each exhibit different states at different times but due to the entanglement = synchronization of the timing of their state changes AND the fact that they change their states in opposing direction, they are guaranteed to have opposing states when observed simultaneously. These two properties (synchronization of timing of state changes + state changes in opposition direction) lead to the impression that there is a some kind of spooky action at distance. People then think the particle B assumed that specific opposing state just because the particle A has just been observed to have the other state and instantly communicated its state to the particle B. This is just a misinterpretation of the observation due to the misunderstanding of what entanglement really is. Entanglement is not a spooky communication link between the particles. Entanglement is synchronization of the particles at the point of time of their separation, nothing more, nothing less. Einstein was right, there is a hidden variable and that is synchronization.

  10. dark_shadow

    September 14, 2019 6:11 pm

    This is all very cool and all but a bit too hypothetical to base science on. Suppose you have 2 balls, one red and one blue. Now I put them together in a bag and take out one without noticing it's color. Now I go to the other end of the universe and see that the ball is red. Then the other ball in the bag must be blue. Calling this quantum tunneling and hypothesizing that the balls are both red and blue while I haven't checked their color just seems like overcomplicating a simple problem. Can someone help me get around this?
    Not a troll, just curious.

  11. Salty Aquarius

    September 15, 2019 1:51 am

    That is because entanglement is not an action, it is a bit of information. If i write yes and no on 2 pieces of paper, and put each one into an envelope, you will instantly and by no matter the distance know what is written on the second. You really need to have some kind of genius brain to think that somehow if i open first envelope on Alpha Centauri, see that it is yes there and send the answer back, it will change from yes to no at the moment that message appears.

  12. Salty Aquarius

    September 15, 2019 1:52 am

    Hidden variables are at the basis of kolmogirov axiomatic description of probability. Since qmech uses probability, you can't describe universe without those.

  13. Psycho Psyte

    September 17, 2019 6:31 pm

    Is it not suspicious to anyone else that Quantum Entanglement works a lot like switches? Billions and Zillions of tiny switches connecting particles to each other.

  14. Wayne L Foley

    September 23, 2019 11:35 pm

    The proper interpretation of quantum entanglement will give the World the "Theory of Everything.
    "Quantum Entanglement began with the duality of the "Primary Particle, a self-replicating Particle which is smaller even than an atom, smaller than a proton, smaller even than a Quark. Something so small that its motion is said to be meaningless. The motion of the primary particle has no angular momentum, no velocity of speed and direction is not measurable as to location and momentum. in Space-time. The primary particle.is weightless, has "No Mass", is Transcendental as "Nothing becomes Something".

    The Primary Particle is a duality, the two being the same, identical and yet distinctly different One from the other. the duality of 0 and 1. the motion of a Zero-0 being an insignificant Innate, Inner Motion, a vibration, an oscillation which causes a Quantum Singularity to make a humming sound "Ohm".

    The Singularity 0f One-1 has angular momentum velocity of speed and direction, is measurable as to location and momentum in Space-Time, has Mass and like the Singularity of Zero-0 the Singularity of
    One-1 also makes a Humming sound; OHM!

  15. Reigh

    September 25, 2019 2:22 pm

    Ok stop as they move away from one another with opposite spins they are particles double slit makes them wave formations so their 'packet' particle is not sill neither is the wave form of the path they move on like a vibrating mass with opposite spins moving at frequency oscillation to a point the 'path' between them maintains an oscillating pressure between the very static space so change is constantly communicated because they are virtually touching at all times via this pressure wave of space they create and maintain on the path taken. To measure and fix one while entangled and not interfered with communicates the state between them as if they are one but on opposite spin in this case is the information they are maintaining as they are pulled apart along a path. There is no time to go there they are connected at a distance by the fact that they make this oscillation in space as they travel and are in constant touch. We can only view them because of the movements of their motion but space between them and long the path is pressing equally between them as they move through more and more space. That is how forces wave forms can also merge to particles and then smaller particles can break off like a neutrino and still have forces of similar properties for their mass they are different layers wrapped around the wave form we are identifying as the particle the forces are also wave forms and the space and pressure between them and that particle communicate to cause properties both in adding mass for pull and attraction and causing vectors of energy forming the particles wave formations and movements to create that wave formation. This is from an ancient merge were fields spun close enough to one another to create density so motion didn't keep them moving away but wrapped them into new packets of certain form with these forces becoming pulled together by their masses then the curves of motion spread out and particles of various size broke off of this fabric exiting inflation in a spiraling funnel spreading outward as particles break off in predicable chunks and constructing particles in parts to form quarks and forms like atoms and elements as the spread out and cooled hardening their forms their masses could then accumulate from that hot dust as larger nd larger bodies attracted to one another's mass. The forces off all their mass in gravity and in the innate way wave forms were moving spirals of force may have very well heled form RNA Spirals and DNA and plasmids which then used the fractal patterns of metallic solids to build macromolecules the proteins made of nucleic acid. Nucleic acids shapes may well be due to natural wave forms and forces movements at different dimensional scales as the presence of various things like water plus it's dipolarilty and oxygen or lack of it different conditional states allowed for different constructions of single celled organelles. organic shapes could only fight against gravity in certain ways straight up until tipped one way and to fight that the same metallic solid spiral shapes which brought the mass of inflation close enough to form forces not forms structural walls of the nautilus or the leaves where they need to be to capture light.

  16. Fibi Nacci

    September 30, 2019 12:17 am

    As an entity within the universe how can we refrain from affecting or measuring other entities within the universe?

  17. G dubb

    October 4, 2019 8:32 pm

    Lets see if they are in a sort of super position of spin properties. They are "spinning" in both directions at once. As matter of fact all directions at once. It is the very being of existence. Ever growing ever changing existence. Creating new destroying old at the same time

  18. Yves Cooreman

    October 6, 2019 12:59 am

    Biocentrism. If reality in created by consciousness rather than the other way around, then a lot of this weirdness becomes a lot less weird

  19. shantilalg1707

    October 11, 2019 7:24 am

    For more weirdness of quantum mechanics see: http://www.heraldopenaccess.us/fulltext/Alzheimers-&-Neurodegenerative-Diseases/The-Quantum-Theory-of-Entanglement-and-Alzheimers.php

  20. Gary Palmer

    October 11, 2019 1:36 pm

    The causality argument is wrong. Just cause you have to communicate your findings at non ftl speeds dosent negate the fact entangled particals do communicated ftl. All that your example has shown is that humans can't communicate ftl.

  21. joseph smith

    October 14, 2019 3:08 am

    The dbl slit experiment def does make it feel like sim theory is correct check out nick bostroms thoughts on the matter lile a video game saves cpu power by only using it for the focus of the view

  22. Born to be a Melody who will love 7 dorks 4ever

    October 14, 2019 8:16 pm

    I am here to have an idea about the new album of BTOB's I'm Hyunsik. But damn, what is this all about? 😭😅

  23. Jesus’s Eternal Son

    October 15, 2019 9:55 am

    Dark energy field is faster than speed of photons otherwise the Big Bang theory will never allow the universe to be cooled. It would increase ever hotter if dark energy field were slower than speed of photons.

    However photons are not light but radiation of heat that is fire 🔥.

    Radiation creates heat and heat creates mass and mass creates space.

    Dark matter particles have no mass and zero space between magnetic 🧲 poles that are equally 50% dark matter and 50% antimatter and that is a neutrino. Neutrino is not just a dark matter particle but also a black hole 🕳.

  24. John Pruyn

    October 17, 2019 7:45 pm

    If one entangled particle falls into a black hole and and from the frame of reference of the particle outside the event horizon the particle would seem to slow down then stop, does that mean time will stop for the particle outside the blackhole as well?

  25. Cosmoscarl Holloway

    October 17, 2019 10:23 pm

    It occurs to me that all particles in the universe are entangled. They were all a single particle when the Big Bang started.

  26. brian r

    October 19, 2019 2:13 am

    There was a outer-limits or twilight zone episode (the original) where builders would build and erase things when needed. For instances if no one is walking/driving or other wise seeing a street the street and everything on it did not exist until just before it was needed.

  27. threeMetreJim

    October 23, 2019 10:35 pm

    He, He, the peekaboo thing is actually the not knowing exactly when the person will reveal their face again and the associated 'shock' when they do reveal, not that they suddenly disappear – a bit like the anticipation of a joke's punch line, but for babies; well, from what I remember anyway.

  28. Jub Jub

    October 26, 2019 6:57 pm

    I can't pay attention to the video with the way this dude talks, is that just a me thing? Is that ADHD or something?

  29. Paolo Deidda

    October 29, 2019 2:51 am

    i can t understand the part at 6.25, how can the two bottom particels be entangled if their spin are the same. According to the definition two particles are entangled when the sum of their spin is equal to 0. HELPPPP

  30. 1dir

    October 30, 2019 8:45 pm

    @PBS Space Time
    this discussion introduced an incomplete part of Bell's proposal–Superdeterminism. Search YouTube and view: "Entanglement Theory may Reveal a Reality we can't Handle"
    by Arvin Ash

  31. Ben Milbee

    October 31, 2019 2:27 am

    What if what unexplained phenomenon that is quantum entanglement is the forth or 5th dimension and they really are connected but we just can't see it cause we the observer cant comprehend it.

  32. Kent

    October 31, 2019 8:24 am

    I hate that the way this information is explained makes it inaccessible to so many people. But this is one of the better videos I’ve seen.

  33. espacio hexadimencional serna

    November 2, 2019 12:10 pm

    what if light multiplies by 10 whene just reaching 300000 everage light speed per second doing it way to fast that in a milifraction has gone and come to the outer universe edge?.

  34. NeuWorld Solutions

    November 2, 2019 12:14 pm

    Or maybe locality is true if the observer is looking for it and likewise realism is true if the observer is looking for it…

  35. espacio hexadimencional serna

    November 2, 2019 12:50 pm

    All is from the quantum and below to the outer we could go all must to be entangled, entanglemed to a deeper level with the higher level all must be conected not other wise, I no longer think of rigide electric universe even in many densityes and gases, if all is made of light that is found in the 3 states that are solid, liquide and gaseous and with the 7 steps in wave length that the visible universe has says to me that light speed could never be the same in each density wave length, so the shotter replies more friction so speed is trap in where red is the widests so is the one that gives less friction so is more free, this same thing gave me to think that the universe must not be the same in temperature as reported by the cmb telescope.

  36. espacio hexadimencional serna

    November 2, 2019 1:10 pm

    All atoms are interconected one to another and at the same time are all conected to the planet they are at but at the same time the planets are entangled in pairs. All stars are entangled one to another and at the same time all are overslaping in a kind of a jointing each other same as atoms do, the same thing happens to the galaxies, clusters of galaxies, universes and maybe so on . To me entanglement is a way for not stars flying away off the galaxies, is a way mattter is compacted togather as atoms, planets, stars etc.

  37. PWR PWR

    November 3, 2019 1:08 am

    really great video! things that can add to this: how can we entangle particles and what are all the particles that can or can not be entangled? how is the measurement of spin taken?

  38. wes mok

    November 4, 2019 8:39 am

    what if you measured both particles spin direction at the same time each measured along a different spin axis?

  39. Mudfossil University

    November 4, 2019 8:02 pm

    This is a new theory that appears to be validated experimentally. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pp8Beab0hFo&t=6s

  40. 0key vanilya

    November 5, 2019 1:35 am

    Isnt there any buttuon or way to like all videos, i forgot liking and i watched lots of videos. Now i know only one way to click like on all you videos its just one by one doing that.

  41. jake jake

    November 5, 2019 9:03 pm

    Complicated version of "if a tree falls in the forest and no one is there to hear it does it make a sound?"

  42. Michelle Hettinger

    November 6, 2019 12:18 pm

    I'm with einstein on the hidden variables thing. If an electron is tunneling through particles, there could be some intermediate state that is too fast to comprehend.

  43. Joe3

    November 8, 2019 1:49 am

    I really enjoy this channel and I am able to understand almost 10 percent of the information provided. There are a lot of very intelligent Subscribers who participate in the comments section also. Thank You for helping me understand Scientific theories and facts.

  44. Warzone AX

    November 8, 2019 9:53 am

    Imagine that everything that you don't perceive or observe in the universe, stops existing as it is and goes into a state of superposition. A superposition, where it's every possible universe at the same time. Then, depending on the decisions your conscious mind makes which impacts your observation, the universe would come out of superposition and assign you 1 reality out of infinite realities that exist in the superposed multiverse. Each moment, we observe something that we weren't observing a moment before, and every time this happens, superposition ends and a new reality is added to our timeline. Our "timeline" is just made of moments that happened as a result of observation, where each moment is one possible outcome from the superposed multiverse.
    I can't explain really well, but I hope you can understand and add on to it/criticise it.

  45. Azareth Xephraos

    November 8, 2019 6:57 pm

    could be the scanning device measuring the spin of the quantum particle is actually sandwiching the toroid of the particle with its own complex toroid field and thus, due to the sheer path of least resistance, reorienting the particles axis by pressing on its toroid from both directions…

  46. Name Last Name

    November 9, 2019 12:29 am

    makes sense that the probes simply would be hibernating bacteria or molecules since they would have a very small weight and thus could travel at great speeds.

  47. Zes

    November 9, 2019 6:50 am

    no such thing as diffx etc or hilariousx etc or not about that or it etc, cepitxux, any be infix hilairox no matter what

  48. Réal Morrissette

    November 12, 2019 8:17 am

    Would it make sense to assume the existence of "dark matter boson" that could link the entangled particles together not in spacetime but outside in another dimension where the dark matter boson live. That could solve the non-locality problem since the entangled particles are in "contact" through the dark matter boson.

  49. László Gulyás

    November 14, 2019 5:23 pm

    What if: particles are 4 dimensional objects. We can interact (through measurement) with only their surface or 3 dimensional apexes. When we interact with them, the whole multidimensional object starts moving until only one 3 dimensional part of it remains in our 3 dimension. (i.e.: imagine a triangle crossed by a line through 2 different points. The line is our reality the triangle is the multidimensional particle. When the measurement starts the triangle starts moving until the crossing line reaches its closest apex). This explains the 2 slit experiment: normally our 3d reality can cross the multidimensional object (photon) at different points. Measurement forces the object to spin until its closest apex perfectly fit into our 3d world. Quantum entanglement is a different topic. Imagine the multidimensional object like a container which contains different spins. When 2 particles are "separated" and "quantum entangled" they are basically 2 different 3d part of the 4d object. When you observe one part then you interact with the 4d particle and you influence its spin. It works like electro magnetism: when you places a postive current to a closed object that contains mixed charged particles, then it will forms a negative polarity at the closes point to positive current outside of it, and also forms a positive polarity at the opposite side.
    This can work because the 4th dimension is a layer of information, where no matter is stored. Transferring information from this dimension to 3d reality can influence it just like how electricity works. The 4th dimension look like a fluid cloud of information, and the 3 dimension of matter works like a blockchain that stores the important definite states of the 4th layer objects following a cause-effect ruleset that can't be changed.


    November 17, 2019 3:51 am

    all you shows are fucked , you only talk about unprovable shit . . . transmit shit between particles , fuckwhit

  51. Kunal Bhagawati

    November 18, 2019 3:33 am

    This is the first PBS space time video I fully understood. It may be because I've been watching a lot of other videos and reading about it, or it may be because this video is less mathy, but for the first time, I understand. Thanks guys, this was a good spend of time today! 🙂

  52. Some Guy

    November 21, 2019 1:39 pm

    I never understood how this is some sort of proof. I create two things or make them interact (entangled) so that one points up (A) one points down (B) then i measure them later making sure nothing disturbs their orientation uhhh (disentangles them yarr).
    (A) points up in the results (B) points down in the results. How is this result unexpected in any way? No matter which you measure you know what the other is cause it was set up to be the opposite from the start. The condition is neither gets disturbed lol. If they really weren't local you couldn't disentangle them after they were tested they would remain entangle right isn't that the point of what is trying to be proven? So uh obviously if they really were magically entangled and sharing the same state vs just being set to have opposite orientations they would remain opposite of each other after the test and this spooky action if it were real it would be a permanent ftl information effect that was usable by practical applications for ftl communications.

    Of course it isn't and there is no ftl radio because this is pedantic circular logical.

    I only see the obvious here and fail to see anything magical or amazing or even strange at all.
    This can't even be called a rigged test its too pointless.

  53. James Jr Tankersley

    November 23, 2019 10:07 am

    Well presented. Have you seen Karma Peny's work? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yOtsEgbg1-s I tested his math, and it indeed appears to violate Bells inequalities using local hidden non-communicating variables in a basic CHSH setup?

  54. Gaz Masonik

    November 23, 2019 10:51 pm

    Statement of being on the verge of creating primitive life forms! Very misleading. The new discoveries in synthetic chemistry have found a conflagration of confabulation in new complexity as David Berlinski put it..no closer to understanding cell formation than ever!

  55. Ciekawostki o poranku

    November 27, 2019 6:04 am

    What would happen if a gravity-wave passed-by the detector during spin-check of one of the entangled particles? Would that destroy the measurement? I mean…spin has to be checked in the same plane for both particles, and gravity waves distort spacetime, so shouldn't they twist that plane?

  56. Jake

    November 27, 2019 12:35 pm

    The incredible complexity of the universe, the quantum world, life, and everything else makes me believe in a God or multiple Gods so strongly for some reason

  57. Benjamin Feddersen

    November 28, 2019 5:13 pm

    I like the versions of explanation that just tweak the definition of "local". Entangled particles are adjacent in spacetime by definition. Any interaction with any other particles (such as a detector) severs that locality and creates new space "between" the two particles. Would explain where all this extra space is coming from, as well.

  58. Sandeep Bhanushali

    November 28, 2019 10:51 pm

    Human being and all living creature are entangled photon in a matrix of alphabet linked with consciousness or multiple dimension in case of animal kingdom including human being .

    Photon linked with three level of consciousness- physical level , subtle level and ultra consciousness level .
    Consciousness as part of memory participation with physical brain , spiritual memory ( out of body experience) , and ultra consciousness to merge with entangled part or annihilate with null and void for next creativity.

    Like animal , human being derived their congnisation via memory in this body for immediate needs of physical body.
    With consciousness of intelligence – human being have utilised their memory for better living conditions.
    Animal are limited to physical body needs and die – photons in animal body trans migrate to different plan of existence depending upon their consciousness level of existence.

    Human have learned to understand intelligence using theoretical models of understanding consciousness.

    Human being also transmigrate their existence via physical plan , subtle plans and the difficult ultra consciousness level of void where nothing exist.

    Thank you for your time and understanding.

  59. Giovanni P.

    November 30, 2019 12:20 pm

    Can 'todays physics' explain this:? https://metro.co.uk/2019/04/18/us-navy-secretly-designed-super-fast-futuristic-aircraft-resembling-ufo-documents-reveal-9246755/

  60. Dally Jacobson

    December 2, 2019 5:04 am

    When people reject God as we have proven exists, you believe the imaginations of your own entangled jumbled minds. You will be sent down infinite rabbit holes as your prison and delusionment. Why would you trade a personal relationship with the living God, Jesus Christ, for the abstract and centre on a drop in the ocean compared to the ocean of real life found in the One who revealed Himself to us and who was rejected by men like yourselves, as predicted, and life be given instead to those who would believe. Your choice is to know the truth or reject it, but in rejecting the truth as revealed in Creation you are given to this delusion you are so fascinated with.
    Yes, it's like you would rather be entangled by one drop instead of seeing the ocean as a whole. Go outside folks and smell the roses.

  61. Lifecraft

    December 2, 2019 6:45 pm

    There are possible but highly controversial indicators that the human brain might in fact be capable of influencing quantum effects through means that we do not yet understand. They built an experiment with radioactive decay counters linked to a computer. Any decay-event above average count would make a cursor move in one direction, missing events under average would make the cursor move in the other direction. Without any influence, the cursor should remain at its position only slightly shaking. But they say some people were able to willingly move the cursor in the same direction for extended periods of time. If no fake, this would show some sort of mental control over radioactive decay rates which are based on quantum effects.
    Of course these radioactive random generators where only shielded against usual influences like radiowaves, heat and sound. A neutrinoburst from the sun or something could have ruined the very precise measurements.

  62. Gary Palmer

    December 3, 2019 1:45 am

    Your reasoning at 9:57 is false. All you are saying is, cause we can't communicate our (human) findings ftl thus no ftl communication is happening. Just cause we cant communicate ftl doesn't negate the fact the particles are.

  63. Hayden Travis

    December 3, 2019 8:03 pm

    I don't think it's insane that the first cellular organism is just floating around space on cosmic dust, but I also imagine it's very simple and outclassed and consumed by anything that has spent a few million years in a roiling cauldron of chemicals like early Earth. Such organisms had to fight to exist, against corrosion, radiation and frequent impacts. Something subsisting on interstellar winds might not even be a cell, just some RNA bundles or some self replicating molecule similar to that. Something that immediately becomes food for cellular life or is very rare, less so than interstellar hydrogen. Maybe a chain that, at a certain length, is large enough to catch a photo, breaks in half then the two bits never meet again, growing as they collect more atoms before breaking again at or near a threshold.

    Not exactly Abiogenisis, but maybe a pan-fertilizer?


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